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Mankind 4.0

Humans are ever-evolving- This phenomenon is triggered by their needs and wants that are required to be fulfilled for survival; well sometimes for luxury too. Every kind of change that takes place in the world develops mankind in certain ways that makes them a little more capable. There are no limits to what humans can do, but it is only discovered when they face a crisis. This is the perfect time to move up the ladder of maturity and once again prove that nothing is superior to humans and nothing can end this mankind’s reign on earth.

What happened so far?

2020 is the year that escalated the revenues of the News Industry and Media Houses. A series of events have been taking place globally which have had a large impact, rather a very negative impact be it to people, biodiversity, climate, or economic growth. The Australian bushfire, Delhi communal riots, coronavirus pandemic are just a few examples to site. The effects of the pandemic have been the most massive so far, so huge that the world has come to a standstill. Lives have been lost exponentially and so have the hopes of people of going back to normal ever again. There is going to be the start of a new normal soon after there is some control over this situation. The pandemic has had far-reaching consequences on human behavior and there have been unforeseen innovations and development taking place concerning a new lifestyle.

It is the beginning of a new era with changes influencing healthcare, consumption, values, society, education, politics, finance, economy, and so on. Such humanitarian revolutions had been taking place from time to time with the genesis of civilization. Firstly, it was the discovery of fire, secondly, the rise of agriculture and thirdly, the industrial revolution. Perhaps a technology revolution is on its way because that’s the only way to keep things going in this crisis. Just when the world was moving towards technology adoption at a very rapid pace, the Covid19 pandemic has fuelled this phenomenon.

Re-shaping industry and economy

All the sectors that are likely to be dominant from now on are healthcare, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, manufacturing, logistics, agriculture, education, and social welfare. There will be a significant influence of technology either in the form of virtual reality or artificial intelligence, in all these sectors. The new economy will be technology-driven. Disruptive innovation is going to be a focus point. Social welfare also will gain significance. All of it will be facilitated by public-private partnerships which can lead to socio-economic development. The need for the hour is to focus on all these areas so that the world is ready to face such a pandemic again without severe loss. Otherwise, the economic depression cycle will continue for a prolonged duration. The cycle goes on like this- business exists for profit and no production leads to no sales and hence no profits. The capability to employ becomes less. So, companies only hold on to very essential employees to meet demand when the economy picks up. Subsequently, people lose jobs or have the fear of losing jobs and buy less, consume less. So demand goes down and profit automatically goes down. It is evident that revenues are falling and both consumption and production are going down paving a path towards economic recession. However, post the pandemic, the countries with a zero growth rate will be looked upon as an attractive business hub as compared to the countries with a negative growth rate which is going to be common after this catastrophe.

Life comes first

Many of the best paying jobs only facilitate the exchange to make money and serve the no wider purpose to society. This leaves us with huge consulting firms, the advertising industry, and the financial sector. Health care and social care never got the limelight as they were considered “unattractive”. Looks like in the present-day people are realizing that there’s more than making money to survive. A much wider approach to life needs to be followed. Life should be valued more than anything else. Nobody anticipated that a microorganism can devastate the most evolved and developed organism on earth; the humans. This is a signal that the next phase of evolution has arrived where we need to reconsider our way of life. The priorities need to be altered and a more vigilant human needs to take shape.

A transition in lifestyle

Post the 1918 Influenza pandemic, many lifestyles, and hygiene etiquettes were being followed that were never imagined about earlier, yet are a part of our daily routine in the present day. Similarly, there will be some concrete transitions now. Just to cite an example, as social distancing is so essential, multistory buildings might become history. Too many people jammed in one apartment is undesirable. We need more open spaces with better ventilation. Filtration and neutralization of air and water will become mandatory. The home will be the new office for jobs that don’t essentially require movement and physical interaction. Work will be digitized to the farthest extent. The internet will be more accessible and the blood of information flow. Traditional jobs will be replaced by robots. Education delivery will become blended and rich. Globalization will move towards localization. Countries will try to be self-sufficient by having an entire supply chain within the country borders. Country borders might be closed except for extremely essential exchanges and international trade will be redefined. Social welfare, poverty reduction, education, and employment will be prime concerns. In addition to this, people will value their jobs, focus on productivity. Family life will be back, eating nutritious home food with the family together, interacting, bonding, all of it which was somewhere lost in the mechanical life will revive. The scarce resources will be better utilized for needs first and then wants.

Life on earth is precious and with every passing day, facing challenges and changes, mankind has always learned to adjust and endure. With this optimism, we can hope that with time we will evolve to a stronger, more sensible, and responsible being and harmoniously share the planet with our fellow beings. We need to make some quick lifestyle changes and inculcate healthy habits. With our efforts, we can have a better and happier ending to the year 2020 and have a successful decade ahead.

Please comment and share your views on how the Human Race will evolve in 2020.

By Manisha Kar                                                                      Dr. Anjali Jindal

IGSM/PGDM Student                                                 Assistant Professor (OB & HR)

Organisational Citizenship: Going Above and Beyond

Every organisation thrives to create high efficiency and super effective manpower to remain competitive. This makes creating organizational citizens more imperative and important.

An organizational citizen voluntarily does the extra efforts for the company not only because of the job contract.

Organizational citizenship behaviour has been studied since the late 1970s. In more than 30 years of this concept’s existence, it has substantially gained the interest of organisation leaders and academia. Organizational citizenship has been very closely linked with the overall effectiveness of the organisation; thus, organisational citizens play a very important role and have positive consequences in the workplace.

IILM has been a pioneer in developing organisational citizens with its very professional work culture where every member works as a part of a team. The culture at IILM naturally develops and motivates each and every member to deliver the best out.

Organ (1988) defines Organisational Citizenship Behaviour as “individual behaviour that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization”

An Organizational Citizen can be defined as the one who possesses these five behavioural characteristics:

Organizational Citizen1. Altruism: It can be defined as discretionary behaviours that have the effect of helping a specific colleague with an organizationally relevant task or problem.

2. Courtesy: Courtesy has been defined as discretionary behaviours that aim at preventing work-related conflicts with others (Law et al., 2005). This dimension of the organisational behaviour relates to helping behaviour and also keeps preventing the problems. Courtesy is a basic human value that makes him more helpful and understanding towards fellow citizens.

3. Conscientiousness: It consists of the behaviours that go well beyond the defined job role requirements. Every employee of the organisation accepts and adheres to the rules, regulations, and procedures of the organization. Every member of the team takes ownership of all the rules and procedures as the decision process has been effectively collective endeavours.

4. Civic virtue: Responsible participation in the political processes of an organisation. It can be understood as a positive involvement in the concerns of the organisation. Civic virtue can be seen in an individual who takes an interest in the affairs of the organisation and keeps up-to-date with the developments and processes of it.

5. Sportsmanship: It can be defined as tolerating the inconveniences and annoyances of organisational life. No organisation can make perfectly suitable rules and policies for every employee and this should be understood by an organisational citizen. One who is ready and happy to stand with the organisation and serve beyond his defined role overlooking the inconveniences is an ideal organisational citizen.

These characteristics can be developed in an employee by having good practices at the work place and motivating such behaviours by rewarding them. There are alot of tools for doing so in an organisation that starts right away from the hiring process to induction, training, and setting goals that motivate the incoming employee.

Since Organisational Citizen is beneficial for any organisation, it becomes important to consider the factors which affect it. These antecedents can be broadly categorised into three major areas: personality/traits, attitudinal, and leadership/group factors. Among the three personalities has a minimal effect on the tendency to becoming organizational citizen however it does mean that some staff will be more naturally inclined to such behaviour. The other two are more promising as the attitude can be cultivated and leadership can be developed by facilitating more employee engagement.

These antecedents make a guideline to create organizational citizen in any organization through various steps as:

• Job Embeddedness: It is a reflection of the extent to which people are connected in a social web either in an organisation (‘on-the-job’) or in a community (‘off-the-job’).There are three aspects of embeddedness visually, Links: the extent of links to other people or activities,Fit: the extent of fit of their jobs and communities and Sacrifice: the ease with which links could be broken

• Setting examples: The leaders must set an example for the behaviours they want their employees to exhibit. It is well said that cultures are made at the top. Leaders must exemplify being considerate, jumping to help others, putting forward themselves in the events outside the job etc. This will help employees engage into a frame of reference to develop them into organisational citizens.

• Encourage teamwork: Strong co-worker bonds and good interpersonal relationship put a significant impact on employees. People tend to turn into organisational citizens when there is cohesion between them and they feel connected to each other. A culture of collaboration and cooperation must be seeded early so that employees see themselves playing a vital role in supporting co-workers. Job roles must be defined such that they are encouraged to look out for a team which in turn enhances qualities like altruism and courtesy.

• Connect the qualities of Organizational citizenship with company goals: principles of organisational citizenship like altruism, courtesy, civic virtue, conscientiousness and sportsmanship must be linked in any form with the company goal in any verbiage. This will encourage the employees to get into the culture and show the traits as their duty.

• Office social environment: Employees must be given an environment of work that nourishes the organisational citizenship behaviour. Group norms should be made in such a way that encourage the employees to positively interact with each other, attend office functions, seek help, and do help others, etc.

• Supervisor awareness: Training the supervisors about organisational citizenship will help them to look for such traits in the team members and reward them to encourage others to follow. This can be done by adding the OC traits into the appraisal as well. Continuous positive feedback by the supervisor will make more organisational citizen in the team.

• Hiring practices: Though we had learned earlier in the article that the impact of personality on the organisational citizenship behaviours in very low but an outgoing, enthusiastic employee with a positive outlook will be more prone to turn into an organisational citizen. So during the hiring process psychometric testing for such traits must be considered. This is the best stage to look for people who can easily be moulded into organisational citizens.

• Leadership and procedural justice: There must be unit-level organisational citizenship which depends on two variables fairness perception and leadership. An organisational citizen is defined by altruism (helping behaviour) and conscientiousness. Unit level OC is defined by overall OC ratings of the individuals and a unit rating from the supervisor. It is the moral responsibility of the leader towards the success of the organisation as well as the individual success of his subordinates. This gives a feeling of justice to the employees and encourages them to turn into organisational citizens.

At IILM we follow the above points to develop and nurture the organisational citizen in all our staff. Every individual in the institution shows a high degree of traits defined for being an organisational citizen. They go beyond the traditional role definitions or job descriptions. Each member of the team does ‘extra effort’ that is nonetheless essential for the effectiveness of the institution, especially where organisational performance is dependent on the interconnectedness and social networks. Through years IILM has developed its social capital and that translates into its competitive advantage.

References:

1. Law, S. K., Wong, C., & Chen, X. Z. (2005). The construct of organizational citizenship behavior: Should we analyze after we have conceptualized? In D. L. Turnipseed (Ed.), Handbook of organizational citizenship behavior (pp. 47–65). New York: Nova Science Publishers.

2. Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational Citizenship Behavior – The Good Soldier Syndrome. (1st ed.). Lexington, Massachusetts/Toronto: HD.C. Heath and Company.

Dr. Anjali Jindal
Assistant Professor, IILM Graduate School of Management
Greater Noida, UP